JSI RESOURCES: Publications

Targeted HIV testing improves positivity yield and reduces testing volumes among the general population in Zambia


HIV testing is critical to ensure early diagnosis and treatment of people living with HIV (PLHIV) which reduces transmission to others. As we move toward HIV epidemic control, index testing and HIV screening tools have been shown to be efficient and effective targeted testing strategies to identify the remaining undiagnosed PLHIV.

The USAID SAFE program initially supported widespread testing focused on increasing coverage but that led to high numbers of HIV test kits being used and declining yields.

USAID SAFE shifted to targeted HIV testing through two strategies:

  • Enhanced index testing through psychological counselors (including lay and healthcare workers) administering an Index Interview Guide to all newly identified PLHIV and those already on ART each time they came to the facility to determine sexual risk behaviors and assess eligibility for partner notification services,
  • Enhanced use of MOH HIV screening tool in all testing points to screen all (except antenatal women) seeking HIV testing, only clients with one or more risk factors or HIV defining condition were offered an HIV test.

This poster was presented at the AIDS 2020 Virtual Conference. 

Authors: M. Sichamba, B. Kafulubiti, M. Goma, W. Kanjipite, D. Dixon, C. Madevu-Matson, M. Osborne-Smith, 2020

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