JSI RESOURCES: Journal article

Supervision of community health nurses in Ghana: a mixed-methods study on experiences and mentorship needs

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Adequate supervision is critical to maintaining the performance of health workers who provide essential maternal and child health services in low-resource areas. Supportive supervision emphasizing problem-solving, skill development, and mentorship has been shown to improve the motivation and effectiveness of health workers, especially at the community level, but it is not always routinely provided. Previous studies have assessed the uptake of supportive supervision among volunteer health workers and paid health center staff, but less is known about the supervision experiences of paid community-based staff, such as community health nurses (CHNs) in Ghana.

This mixed-methods study explores the frequency and content of CHN supervision in five districts in the Greater Accra and Volta regions of Ghana. We analyzed quantitative data from 197 satisfaction surveys and qualitative data from 29 in-depth interviews (IDIs) and four focus group discussions (FGDs) with CHNs. While the majority of CHNs received supervision at least monthly, they reported that supervision was primarily focused on meeting clinical targets (48%) rather than on handling specific cases or patients (23%). Over a third (34%) of CHNs did not agree that supervisors help them with job-related challenges and nearly half (43%) were unsatisfied with their jobs. 

During IDIs and FGDs, CHNs offered ideas for how to improve supervision, including more frequent field visits so that supervisors could see the on-the-ground realities of their work, greater respect, and positive reinforcement. Overall, CHN motivation and job satisfaction may be strengthened by aligning supervision more closely with the principles of supportive supervision.

Authors: Meghan Bellerose, Soumya Alva, Sophia Magalona, Koku Awoonor-Williams, Emma Sacks

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