Immunization Resources

Immunization Resources

1. General References
2. Routine Immunization 3. New Vaccine Introduction
4. Disease Control Initiatives and RI
5. Communication
6. Capacity Building and Training


Applying an Equity Lens in the Decade of Vaccines
VACCINE, Volume 31, Supplement 2, April 18, 2013
Authors: Lara Brearley, Jos Vandelaer, Rudi Eggers, Robert Steinglass

Why Children Are Not Vaccinated: A Review of the Grey Literature
International Health, 229-238, 2012
Authors: Michael Favin, Robert Steinglass, Rebecca Fields, Kaushik Banerjee, Monika Sawhney

Development and Use of the Lives Saved Tool (LiST): a Model to Estimate the Impact of Scaling Up Proven Interventions on Maternal, Neonatal and Child Mortality
International Journal of Epidemiology, 40(2): 519-20, April 2011
Authors: Steinglass R, Cherian T, Vandelaer J, Klemm RD, Sequeira J

Immunization Essentials. A Practical Field Guide
USAID, 2003

Acciones Esenciales en Inmunización (Spanish version)
UNICEF and USAID, 2007

Fondements de l’immunisation. Guide pratique (French version)
USAID, 2006

Epidemiology of the Unimmunized Child: Findings from the Grey Literature
IMMUNIZATIONbasics Project, October 2009
Prepared for the World Health Organization

WHO Recommendations for Routine Immunization: A User’s Guide to the Summary Tables

Coverage Confusion! Trying to Make Sense of It
IMMUNIZATION basics SnapShots, Issue 2, February 2006

Mid-Level Management Course for EPI Managers
WHO/AFRO, 2004

The Guide to Tailoring Immunization Programs: Increasing Covereage of Infant and Child Vaccination in the European Region
WHO, 2013


The future of Routine Immunization in the Developing World: Challenges and Opportunities
Global Health: Science and Practice, 2(4), 2014
Authors: Shen, A.K; Fields, R.; McQuestion, M.

Routine Immunization: an Essential but Wobbly Platform
Global Health: Science and Practice, 1(3), 2013
Author: Steinglass, R.

Strategies to Maximize Generalization from Multiple Case Studies: Lessons from the Africa Routine Immunization System Essentials (ARISE) project
Evaluation, July 2013
Authors: Mookherji, S;  LaFond, A.

A Stakeholder Consultation on Investment Strategies for Routine Immunization in Africa
ARISE Project, 2012
Author: Fields, R.

Researching Routine Immunization - Do We Know What We Don't Know?
VACCINE, 29(47): 8477-82, Nov 3, 2011
Authors: Clements, CJ; Watkins, M; de Quadros, C.; Biellik, R.; Hadler, J; McFarland, D.; Steinglass, R.; Luman, E.; Hennessey, K.; Dietz, V.

Landscape Analysis Synopsis: An Initial Investigation of the Drivers of Routine Immunization System Performance in Africa
ARISE Project, 2011

Has Routine Immunisation in Africa Become Endangered?
The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 9, Issue 11: 655-656, 2009
Authors: Berhane, Y.; Clements, C.; Ndiaye, J.; Taylor, P.

Final Project Report
IMMUNIZATIONbasics Project, 2009

Periodic Intensification of Routine Immunization (PIRI): Lessons Learned and Implications for Action
IMMUNIZATIONbasics Project, USAID, and WHO, 2009

More Juice From the Squeeze: Linking Immunization Services With Other Health Interventions
IMMUNIZATIONbasics SnapShots, Issue 5, April 2007

Integrated Delivery of Health Services During Outreach Visits: A Literature Review of Program Experience Through a Routine Immunization Lens
Journal of Infectious Disease, 205, Supplement 1, March 2012
Authors: Partapuri, T.; Steinglass, R.; Sequeira, J.

Regular Appraisal of Program Implementation in District (RAPID): A Supportive Supervision Approach for Strengthening Routine Immunization
MCHIP/India, 2014

Routine Immunization - Country Experience

End-of-Project Brochure (French)
PECSE Project, June 2008

Universal Immunization through Improving Family Health Services (UI-FHS) Rapid Assessment Briefer
UI-FHS Project, 2013

Universal Immunization through Improving Family Health Services (UI-FHS) Rapid Assessment Brochure
UI-FHS Project, 2012

Universal Immunization through Improving Family Health Services (UI-FHS) Rapid Assessment Report
UI-FHS Project, 2013

Assessment of Routine Immunization Services in Two Districts of the State of Jharkhand (India)
Health and Population – Perspectives and Issues, 34(1), 2011
Authors: Sagar, K.S.; Taneja, G.; Jain, M.; Mishra, S.; Mentey, V.K.; Agrawal, N.

Institutionalizing Early Vaccination of Newborns Delivered at Government Health Facilities: Experiences from India
International Journal of Medical Research and Review, Vol 3, Issue 5, June 2015
Authors: Taneja, G.; Mentey, V.; Jain, M.; Sagar, KS; Tripathi, B.; Favin, M.; Steinglass, R.

MCHIP India Achievements 2009-2014

MCHIP, 2014

My Village My Home: A Tool to Optimize Immunization Coverage. Guidance Note for Using the MVMH Tool
MCHIP, June 2014.

Routine Immunization in India: A perspective

Indian Journal of Community Health, Vol 25, No. 2, April-June 2013
Authors: Taneja, G.; Sagar, KS; Mishra, S.

Multi County
The GAVI Alliance Civil Society Organizations Type B Funding Case Studies: Afghanistan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia and Pakistan
JSI, 2010
Author: Abramson, W.B.
Democratic Republic of Congo
The Immunization Inter-Agency Coordination Committee Model: Example from DR Congo
BASICS IIProject, 2002
Authors: Nelson, D.; Shimp, L.

Modèle de Comité de coordination inter-agences pour la vaccination L’exemple de la République Démocratique du Congo (French Version)
(Russian Version)

Former Soviet Union

Successful Control of Epidemic Diphtheria in the States of the Former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: Lessons Learned
Journal of Infectious Diseases, 181 (Suppl 1): 10-22, 2002
Authors: Dittmann, S.; Steinglass, R.; et al

Successful Proof of Concept of Family Planning and Immunization Integration in Liberia
Global Health: Science and Practice, Vol. 3, No. 1, March 1, 2015
Authors: Cooper, C.M.; Fields, R.; Mazzeo, C.I.; Taylor, N.; Pfitzer, A.; Momolu, M.; Jabbeh-Howe, Q.

Madagascar Immunization Report

IMMUNIZATIONbasics Nigeria End of Project Review Report
IMMUNIZATIONbasics, 2009

Factors Limiting Immunization Coverage in Urban Dili, Timor-Leste
Global Health: Science and Practice, vol. 1 no. 3: 417-427, November 1, 2013
Authors: Amin, R.; de Oliveira, T.; Da Cunha, M.;  Wells Brown, T.; Favin, M.; Cappelier, K.

Improving Child Health in Timor-Leste


Imunizasaun Proteje Labarik. Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste. Final Program Report MCHIP, April 2011-December 2013

Routine Immunization - Reaching Every District Strategy (RED)

Drivers of Routine Immunization Coverage Improvement in Africa: Findings from District-Level Case Studies
Health Policy and Planning, 1–11, 2014
Authors: LaFond, A.; Kanagat, N.; Steinglass, R.; Fields, R.; Sequeira, J.; Mookherji, S.

Block-Level Routine Immunization Microplanning Tool: Instruction Manual For Using The Microplanning Tool To Develop A Block-Level Microplan
MCHIP/India, 2014

Drivers of Routine Immunization System Performance at the District Level: Cameroon Case Study
ARISE Research Brief 4, 2012
Authors: LaFond, A.; Sequeira, J.

Drivers of Routine Immunization System Performance at the District Level: Study Findings from Three Countries, Research Brief No. 3
ARISE Research Brief 3, 2012
Authors: LaFond, A,; Kanagat, N.; Sequeira, J.; Steinglass, R.; Fields, R.; Mookherji, S.

Summary Document: Making “Reaching Every District” Operational
IMMUNIZATIONbasics, 2009

Nigeria Version: Making “Reaching Every Ward” Operational
IMMUNIZATIONbasics, 2009

Nigeria Summary Document: Making “Reaching Every District” Operational
IMMUNIZATIONbasics, 2009

PRISM Framework: a Paradigm Shift for Designing, Strengthening and Evaluating Routine Health Information Systems
Health Policy and Planning, 2009
Authors: Aqil, A.; Lippeveld, T.; Hozumi, D.

Implementing the Reaching Every District Approach. A Guide for District Health Management Teams
WHO/AFRO, revised 2008
Mise en Oeuvre de l’Approche: Atteindre Chaque District. Guide à l’Intention des Equipes de Santé de District
WHO/AFRO, 2009

Alcançar Cada Distrito Um Guião para as Equipas Distritais de Gestão de Saúde
WHO/AFRO, 2008

In-Depth Evaluation of the RED Approach in the African Region


Bringing Immunization Services Closer to Communities: The RED Experience in Ghana
WHO/Ghana, 2005

Reaching Every District (RED) Approach to Strengthen Routine Immunization Services: Evaluation in the African Region, 2005
Journal of Public Health Advance Access, 32(1):18-25, June 19, 2009
Authors: Ryman, T.; Macauley, R.; Nshimirimana, D.; Taylor, P.; Shimp, L.; Wilkins, K.

Routine Immunization - Planning, Monitoring, Quality Improvement

Institutionalizing Early Vaccination of Newborns Delivered at Government Health Facilities: Experiences from India
International Journal of Medical Research and Review, Vol 3, Issue 5, June 2015
Authors: Taneja, G.; Mentey, V.K.; Jain, M.; Singh, K.; Tripathi, B.; Favin, M.; Steinglass, R.

Reaching Every District Using Quality Improvement Methods (RED-QI): A Guide for Immunization Program Managers
UI-FHS Project, 2015

The Gas Cylinder, the Motorcycle and the Village Health Team Member: a Proof-of-Concept Study for the Use of the Microsystems Quality Improvement Approach to Strengthen the Routine Immunization System in Uganda
Implementation Science, 10:30, 2015
Authors: Bazos, D.A.; Ayers LaFave, L.; Suresh, G.; Shannon, K.C.; Nuwaha, F.; Splaine, M.E.

Monitoring Coverage of Fully Immunized Children

, Vol 32, 2014
Authors: Tsega, A.; Daniel, F.; Steinglass, R.

Development of Demonstration Centers: Standard Operating Procedures for Establishing Demonstration Centers for Immunization
MCHIP/India, 2014

A High-Impact Intervention: Institutionalizing Newborn Vaccination: Experience from India

MCHIP/India, 2014

ARISE Notes from the Field: Using Data to Make a Difference
ARISE, 2012
Authors: Fields, R.; Kanagat, N.

Immunization Ready Reference for Health Workers
Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi, 2011
Author: Sagar, K.S.

The CAPA Handbook: A "How-To" Guide for Implementing Catchment Area Planning and Action, Community-Based Child Survival Approach
BASICS II/Nigeria, 2004

Catchment Area Planning and Action Module 1: Routine Immunization
BASICS II/Nigeria, 2004

Improving the Monitoring of Immunization Services in Kyrgyzstan
Health Policy and Planning, 15(3), 279-286, 2000
Authors: Weeks, R.M.; Svetlana, F.; Noorgoul, S.; Valentina, G.

Routine Immunization - Engaging with Communities

Community Involvement in Maternal and Child Health in Madagascar: Example from immunization

Implication De La Communaute Dans La Sante Des Meres Et Enfants A Madagascar: Exemple du PEV (French version)

Engaging Communities with a Simple Tool to Help Increase Immunization Coverage
Global Health: Science and Practice, Volume 3, Number 1, 2015
Authors: Jain, M.; Taneja, G.; Amin, R.; Steinglass, R.; Favin, M

Partnering with Communities
Immunization in Practice: Module 7, WHO

ARISE Notes from the Field: Community-Centered Health Workers
ARISE, 2012
Authors: Fields, R.; Kanagat, N.; LaFond, A.

Notes from the Field: Health System and Community Partnerships
ARISE, 2012
Authors: Fields, R.; Kanagat, N.

Working with Communities to Strengthen Immunization
IMMUNIZATIONbasics SnapShots, Issue 9, June 2009

Partnering with Communities
Training for Mid-Level Managers: Module 2, WHO/IVB/08.02

Increasing Immunisation Coverage in Uganda: The Community Problem Solving and Immunisation Strategy Development Approach

Reaching Every Child for Primary Immunization. An Experience from Parsa District, Nepal
BASICS, 2004
Authors: Shah, H.K.; Siddiqi, M.

Routine Immunization - Logistics and Cold Chain

An Extra Mile for Immunization: A Case of Bauchi and Sokoto States, Nigeria
Targeted States High Impact Project (TSHIP), Feb 2012

Cold Chain and Logistics Management: An Essential Part of Safe and Effective Vaccination Programs
IMMUNIZATIONbasics SnapShots, Issue 8, July 2008

The Cold Chain and Immunization Services: Experiences of the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ Regional State
Integrated Family Health Project, 2012


Bottlenecks and Breakthroughs: Lessons Learned from New Vaccine Introductions in Low-resource Countries, 2008 to 2013
MCHIP, 2014

NUVI Scale-up Map
MCHIP, 2014

New Vaccine Introductions: Assessing the Impact and the Opportunities for Immunization and Health Systems Strengthening
Vaccine, Volume 31, Supplement 2, April 18, 2013
Authors: Wang, S.A.; Hyde, T.B.; Mounier-Jack, S.; Brenzel, L.; Favin, M.; Gordon, W.S.; Shearer, J.C.; Mantel, C.; Arora, N.; Durrheim, D.

The Impact of New Vaccine Introduction on Immunization and Health Systems: A Review of the Published Literature
Vaccine, Volume 30, Issue 45: 6341-6508, October 2012
Authors: Hyde, T.; Dentz, H.; Wang, S.; Burchett, H.; Mounier-Jack, S.; Mantel, C.; The New Vaccine Introduction Impact Published Literature Working Group



Checklist and Indicators for Optimizing the Impact of Polio Activities on EPI

Global Eradication of Polio
Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), Vol 301, No. 2: 161, 14 January 2009
Author: Steinglass, R.

Impact of Targeted Programs on Health Systems: A Case Study of the Polio Eradication Initiative
American Journal of Public Health. 92 (1) 19-23. 2002
Authors: Loevinsohn, B.; Aylward, B.; Steinglass, R.; Ogden, E.; Goodman, T.; Melgaard, B.

Using Data to Guide Action in Polio Health Communications: Experience from the Polio Eradication Initiative (PEI)

Journal of Health Communication, 15: 1, 48 – 65, 2010
Authors: Taylor, S.; Shimp, L.


Fiches Technique de Rougeole (French version)
DRC Ministry of Health EPI and BASICS II, May 2001

Guide de Control de la Rougeole (French version)
DRC Ministry of Health EPI and BASICS II, April 2001

Moving Forward with Strengthening Routine Immunization Delivery as Part of Measles and Rubella Elimination Activities

VACCINE, Volume 31, Supplement 2, April 18, 2013
Authors: Fields, R.; Dabbagh, A.; Jain, M.; Sagar, K.S.

Should Measles Be Eradicated?
British Medical Journal. 316: 765-767, 1998
Authors: Cutts, FT.; Steinglass, R.

Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus (MNT)

Eliminating Neonatal Tetanus

"Tetanus." Chapter 8 in: Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries
Oxford University Press for the World Bank, 1993

Authors: Steinglass, R.; Brenzel, L.; Percy, A..

Using Early Childhood Booster Doses to Maintain the Elimination of Neonatal Tetanus
BASICS, 1998
Author: Steinglass, R.


Communication for Polio Eradication: Improving the Quality of Communication Programming Through Real-Time Monitoring and Evaluation
Journal of Health Communication, 15: 1, 9 – 24, 2010
Authors: Waisbord, S.; Shimp, L.; Ogden, E.W.; Morry, C.

Communication for polio eradication and routine immunization—Checklists and easy reference guides
WHO, UNICEF, and USAID, 2002

Communication Handbook for Polio Eradication and Routine EPI
UNICEF, WHO, and USAID, 2000

Communication for Immunisation Programmes
Mid-Level Management Course for EPI Managers. Block I: Introductory Modules. Module 3.
WHO/AFRO, March 2004

Strengthening Immunization Programs: The Communication Component


Building Routine Immunization Capacity, Knowledge, and Skills
JSI, 2016

Refresher Training for Frontline Health Workers in Expanded Program for Immunization (EPI): Facilitator’s Guide
ESHE Project the SNNPR, Oromiya and Amhara Regional Health Bureaus and the SNNPR, Oromiya and Amhara Regional Health Bureaus, 2004

Module 1: Facilitating Adult Learning
Module 4: Communicating with Caretakers and Communities for Improved Routine Immunization Coverage

Immunization Training Needs in Malawi

East African Medical Journal, Vol. 91 No. 10. October 2014
Authors: Tsega, A.; Hausi, H.; Steinglass, R.; Chirwa, G.

Immunization Scheduling Tool
IMMUNIZATIONbasics, 2007

Carte Merci Job Aid