Publications

Reducing Unsafe Injections in Four African Countries: The Making Medical Injections Safer End of Project Report

Download this publicationOf the 16 billion injections given worldwide each year, up to 50 percent are unnecessary and unsafe, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Estimates of the global burden of disease from unsafe and unneeded injections suggested that in the year 2000, unsafe injections around the world were responsible for 5% of HIV infections, 32% of hepatitis B virus infections, and 40% of hepatitis C virus infections. Based on this evidence, prevention of medical transmission of HIV has been an integral part of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) comprehensive HIV prevention strategy since its inception in 2004. John Snow Inc. (JSI) was contracted by the United States Agency for International Development's (USAID) PEPFAR funding mechanism to address the problem of HIV transmission in health care settings by implementing a project known as Making Medical Injections Safer (MMIS) over five years (2004-2009) in Ethiopia, Mozambique, Nigeria, and Uganda. JSI/MMIS, 2009

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